ByChance Hits The Asset Store

After a year of hard work it’s finally live! ByChance for Unity hits the Unity Asset Store. Back in 2011, Denis Vaz Alves and me wrote our master thesis about existing games using procedural content generation, their techniques and their impact on the game design. The result was a C# implementation of a generic framework for the generation of game levels, which finally made its way into the Asset Store. Using the same approach for generating game levels as successful games like Torchlight and Infinite Mario Bros., ByChance allows you to provide an infinite amount of unique levels for both 2D and 3D games of all genres.

ByChance for Unity

Celebrate the release with us and spread the word – for more infinite game worlds out there! 🙂

Static Code Analysis and you

There are a lot of ways of improving your code quality: Pair programming, code reviews, unit testing, just to name a few. Static code analysis is one of them. While good code analysis tools can cost thousands of euros and will highlight issues in your code you’d have most probably missed otherwise, it is important to understand why these issues can lead to subtle bugs.

I’d like to shed light on some the issues Resharper points out from time to time, and why taking theses issues seriously can help you to write better C# code.

Possible compare of value type with ‘null’

The following code snipped is taken from our A* pathfinding implementation and has led to the R# issue Possible compare of value type with ‘null’:

Strictly speaking, the type T could be a struct that implements the IAStarNode interface. For structs (and other value types), this comparison will always fail, which might be as intended. The clean solution would be to compare to the default value of the specified type:

Assignment to a property of a readonly field can be useless

This can be a tricky (and acutally dangerous) one. Consider the following code snippet:

Resharper will complain about the assignment of the value 42 with Assignment to a property of a readonly field can be useless. Field type is not known to be reference type.

The problem is that readonly fields can only be initialized in the constructor. As GenericClass doesn’t do so, its field will always have its default value. For reference types, this is null, and sooner or later you’ll run into a NullReferenceException – but you’ll find the issue at least. For value types, the result is a little more subtle: In this example, the field will be initialized to the default value of our struct, having its Value property set to 0. While you are absolutely sure of having assigned it the value of 42, this did never happen.

Non-readonly field referenced in GetHashCode

Let’s say you’re working on your own vector struct. At some point, you start writing unit tests, which always fail – you forgot to override Object.Equals. Doing so, the compiler will complain about having overridden Equals, but not GetHashCode.

So you provide your own implementation of GetHashCode:

Now, Resharper will complain about a “Non-readonly field referenced in GetHashCode”. Eric Lippert has written a long and detailed explanation of why this might become a problem for you.

Basically, the GetHashCode method is used whenever you’re putting an object in a hash table.  Hash tables store their items in buckets, trying to achieve an equal number of items in each bucket for faster lookups. They are using the hash codes of these items for indexing into the correct bucket.

Now, let’s say you put your vector into a hash table, for any reason. If you change the values of your vector now, its hash code will mutate, and the containing hash table will fail to ever look it up again: If the hash code of your vector was 42 when it was added to the table, then it was put into the bucket with the index 42. Modifying the vector could make the hash code change to whatever value, say 73 for instance. If you’d want to check whether the table contains your vector now, it would try to look it up in bucket 73, and fail to find it.

Unity3D Windows Store – Part 2: Windows App Cert Kit

In the first part of this series, we’ve talked about how to build and run a Unity3D game targeting the Windows Store platform. We succeeded in building the Unity player, building the resulting Visual Studio solution for the Windows Store game, and running the app on our local machine along with all of our fancy Unity plugins.

Today, we’ll take a look at the limitations of .NET for Windows Store apps and how to pass the Windows App Cert Kit tests with our game.

Supported APIs Test

The Windows App Cert Kit (WACK) has been shipped by Microsoft to enable you to run all of the tests on your app that you are required to pass for being listed in the Windows Store. The kit can be launched for your app right after you’ve ever run it from Visual Studio on your local machine.

The most usual, annoying and complex issues we’ll be facing are the supported API tests. Microsoft prohibits calling certain APIs from your game in order to increase general security and stability of all apps in the store. Most of the violating calls are related to File I/O and reflection.

File I/O

File I/O issues can be solved by defining a new compilation symbol and adapting your project and solution configurations (see part 1). We’ve defined a new symbol windows_store and wrapped all I/O-related code, which was part of our framework but used for Unity editor extensions only, anyway.


The more complicated issues are related to reflection. In the Slash Games Framework, we’re following a heavily data-driven approach for configuring and running our games: Almost all entity data, such as hitpoints, damage or speed, is stored in XML files. Whenever a game entity is created, we’re instantiating and attaching the required components (i.e. HealthComponent, AttackComponent) via reflection. Thus, just replacing or wrapping all reflection code with ifdefs clearly wasn’t an option.

Luckily, our reflection code entirely resides in a dedicated library called Slash.Reflection.dll. The few classes of this library were the only ones that we needed to modify. Our most difficult problem was how to access all loaded types in our Windows Store app. As there’s no AppDomain for this target platform, AppDomain.CurrentDomain.GetAssemblies isn’t available, and thus there’s no framework method that allows reflecting all loaded types. However, we’re not the first ones facing that problem, and there’s an acceptable workaround that has been posted on Stack Overflow.

We created a convenience method GetLoadedTypes and provided two  implementations for the different target platforms. As the approach for Windows Store apps requires you to reference other libraries (i.e. .NETCore, Windows), we were forced to create a new project Slash.Reflection.WindowsStore and put our new reflection code in that project. Giving both libraries compiled from Slash.Reflection and Slash.Reflection.WindowsStore the same name, Unity automatically picks the right one for your target platform. This will come in handy later, when we’re implementing Windows Store-specific features such as the snap view or suspending the app.

Performance Test

Then, the performance test was the last one to fail:

Performance launch: The Native Image Generator failed

The Windows App Certification Kit generates native images for all the managed assemblies of your app package. There’s a manual out around at the Microsoft support pages, helping you to identify the file that’s failing, getting information about the failure and how to pass the test.

In our case, the combination of package name, executable file name, and user name was too long: The generator stores the native images in a user directory, which has a long path name because of the fixed parts that it includes. As all of our package and executable names were already very short (i.e. Slash.Reflection), we opted out of automatic native image generation by  including a file named nongen.txt in our app package at the cost of a minor performance hit in our game.

Exporting the App Package

Now that our game was passing all tests, we exported the app package just as explained on the official Unity website. More detailed information about the process of deploying Windows Store apps can be found at the MSDN, but for now, the steps provided by the Unity documentation were enough.

If you aren’t running a Windows 8 build server, you can easily put the exported package in your SkyDrive, access it on your ARM device and install the game by running the Powershell script Add-AppDevPackage.ps1.

Microsoft recommends running WACK  on your device as well, in order to check whether you pass required maximum load times, for example. The Windows App Certification Kit for Windows RT is available at the official MSDN website. Running the kit for our game on the mobile device immediately passed all tests.

In the last part of this series, we’ll talk about how to include Windows Store-specific features, such as live tiles, contracts or toast notifications in our Unity game.

As usual, feel free to share your thoughts or ask any questions in the comments below!

Next: Unity3D Windows Store – Part 3: Reflections

Unity3D Windows Store – Part 1: Building The App

At slash games, we’ve started working on our first very own game project now, and Windows Store is one of our target platforms. While being quite experienced with Unity3D, there were some challenges building our first Windows Store app with that engine, and I’d like to share some of our learnings with you.

If you’re thinking about porting your Unity game to the Windows Store platform as well, take a look at the official Unity porting page.

Initial Situation

We’ve been starting with a more or less empty 2D Unity project. More or less means: While there wasn’t any game logic or other game-related code yet, we planned to use a handful of plugins we’ve been using in our previous projects:

  • NGUI. Probably the best-known UI toolkit for Unity. We didn’t want to wait another five years for the new Unity GUI system, and NGUI served us well in previous projects.
  • FingerGestures. Unity plugin that abstracts from the underlying hardware and detects common input gestures, allowing you to handle touch events and mouse clicks the same way.
  • Spine. 2D skeletal animation for games with Unity support. Allows your artists to create 2D animations just like you would for 3D games.
  • log4net. .NET library that allows logging to different targets and to enable, disable or change the log level without having to recompile the application.
  • Slash Games Framework. We’ve been using and improving our own game framework at slash games for over a year now. The slash games framework is a collection of .NET libraries that provides a lot of features like AI, entity systems, custom collections or math classes for all of our games.

After having added all of these plugins to the empty Unity project, the first thing I tried to do was building the player for the Windows Store target platform, before creating any game objects or scenes.

Building the Unity Player

The first try failed immediately. Verbose log output told me that log4net was relying on a whole bunch of namespaces that aren’t available for Windows Store apps, most of which are related to File I/O:

Error building Player: Exception: Failed to run Reference Rewriter with cmdline –target=”Temp/StagingArea\log4net.dll” –framework=”C:\Program Files (x86)\Reference Assemblies\Microsoft\Framework\.NETCore\v4.5″ –platform=”C:\Program Files (x86)\Windows Kits\8.0\References\CommonConfiguration\Neutral\Windows.winmd” –support=”Temp/StagingArea\WinRTLegacy.dll” –system=Unity –dbg=pdb –alt=System.Xml.Serialization.[Temp/StagingArea\log4net.dll]

Error: type System.DBNull doesn’t exist in target framework. It is referenced from log4net.dll at System.Void log4net.Appender.AdoNetAppenderParameter::FormatValue(System.Data.IDbCommand,log4net.Core.LoggingEvent).

Error: type System.DBNull doesn’t exist in target framework. It is referenced from log4net.dll at System.Void log4net.Appender.AdoNetAppenderParameter::FormatValue(System.Data.IDbCommand,log4net.Core.LoggingEvent).


Error: method System.Boolean System.IO.File::Exists(System.String) doesn’t exist in target framework. It is referenced from log4net.dll at System.Void log4net.Appender.RollingFileAppender::ExistingInit().

As we had experienced similar issues with Unity web players before, there was already a logging abstraction layer in our framework, and a compilation symbol log4net that was used for wrapping log4net-specific code. Thus, for eliminating the above errors, I just had to switch to a configuration without that compilation symbol defined in Visual Studio.

Rebuilding all libraries and giving it another try created a Visual Studio solution for a Windows Store app that you need to build in order to generate the app package itself, similar to developing iOS apps with Unity.

Building the Windows Store Solution

At first, trying to build the solution in Visual Studio failed as well:

Error: DEP0700 : Registration of the app failed. Windows cannot install package MobileProject because the package requires architecture ARM, but this computer has architecture x64. (0x80073cf3)

The solution exported by Unity is initially set to the active solution platform ARM. Opening the configuration manager and switching to x86 (not x64) allowed me to successfully compile the app.

Running on Local Machine

While you could start the app on the local machine now, it crashed almost immediately with the meaningless error message

Template.exe has triggered a breakpoint.

You could step two or three times through mscorlib before the app was killed. After some research I found out that another configuration setting was wrong: For Unity games, you are supposed to build the solution with the Master configuration. Opening the configuration manager again and switching the active solution configuration fixed the problem.

In fact, not doing so would lead to a failed certification test when running WACK for the app:

The debug configuration test detected the following errors:

  • The binary UnityPlayer.dll is built in debug mode.

I’ll go into details about WACK and how to pass all tests in the next post of this series. I’d like to add that I highly recommend checking in the Visual Studio solution into version control at this point. Re-building the Unity player will replace the Data folder of your solution, only. Thus, the other files, particularly your manifest and any native code you write can be stored in your Git repository (or whichever VCS you prefer).

Feel free to share your thoughts or ask any questions in the comments below!

Next: Unity3D Windows Store – Part 2: Windows App Cert Kit

Happy Twenty Fourteen!

Hey everybody,

one more year of game development – and it’s been hell of an exciting one. Founding slash games with Christian Oeing, finsihing two software projects, reworking my whole Grab Bag of Useful Stuff, managing to organize the first Startup Weekend Hamburg Gaming and teaching 30 hours of game development at SAE Institute Hamburg.

I’ve just received my annual blog report, and I’d like to thank you again. Thank you for 7,100 views, which tell me to keep it up and go on blogging, as there is someone who’s reading all of this after all.

In return, I’d like to present the whole website in a fresh new look, having updated from the 2011 to the 2014 theme, effectively skipping a few years.

I’ve added a new section named Recommended Reading where you can find the few books, blogs and papers I can really recommend. Head over and check it out now!

Finally, I’ve updated my Trusted Devs section. Jan Napitupulu was my former Lead Programmer at Daedalic Entertainment when I joined the company, and we’ve been working together at Campus Buddies at the beginning of the last year. Patrick Henschel is the Lead Unity Developer at XYRALITY and has worked with us on an yet unannounced project later in 2013.

I’m really looking forward to an exciting 2014 with our first very own project at slash games, motivating game jams, a lot of Unity and Windows 8 development, more teaching at SAE, funny tweets by Notch and even more blogging!

Happy Twenty Fourteen everybody!